18 January 2018
There are many different types of simulation models that have different purposes.
When I perform a simulation, it is usually to predict the load at which failure would occur, and compare that with the expected service load to calculate a factor of safety. With that goal, I don't need to simulate the behavior of the system beyond the point of failure.
A Static Structural model will calculate the stress in the sandstone and the bolt for a specific load. The result is the maximum stress in each part. You need to compare the maximum stress with the strength of the material. If the stress < strength, then no failure or damage is predicted to occur in a physical test. If the stress > strength, then failure or damage is predicted to occur in a physical test, but you won't see that in the simulation, that happens only when you compare with the strength.
There are other models that are built to simulate the damage caused when the stress > strength of the material. Explicit Dynamics is one software module in the toolbox that can simulate the damage to a material. The material has to include a failure model so that the elements that exceed the failure criterion are removed during the simulation. Here are three videos of rebar being pulled out of concrete. There are two concrete material models with different failure criteria and a steel with no failure criteria. I hope they help you understand how different types of simulation can be used.